Liebe Leser schliesst seine Tore. Nach 11 Jahren möchte ich andere Projekte verwirklichen, auf Reisen gehen und das Leben endlich in vollen Zügen geniessen. Es waren 11 wundervolle Jahre mit Ihnen. bleibt mindestens die nächsten Jahre als Bilderbuch noch bestehen. Doch jeder Abschied kann auch ein neuer Anfang sein. Nun ist es endgültig. Ich wünsche Ihnen eine weiterhin schöne Zeit. Ich danke Ihnen für die Lesertreue und Ihre ehrliche Begeisterung mit grosser Dankbarkeit. Danke, dass ich Sie 11 Jahre verwöhnen durfte.

Tschau und auf Wiedersehen.

Marcel Krebs

Wer weiterhin mit mir und Sämi in Kontakt bleiben will, kann dies über meinen persönlichen Blog.

Dear Users closes its gates. After 11 years I would like to realize other projects, go on journeys and finally enjoy life to the fullest. There were 11 wonderful years with you. will continue to exist as a picture book for at least the next few years. But every farewell can also be a new beginning. Now it is final. I wish you a good time. I would like to thank the readership and your honest enthusiasm with great gratitude. Thank you for spoiling you for 11 years.

Chess and goodbye.

Marcel Krebs

Anyone who wants to stay in touch with me and Sämi can do so through my personal blog.



Andy Warhol: Shadows

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 Andy Warhol: Shadows

• Dates: February 26 to October 2, 2016
• An exhibition organized by the Dia Art Foundation
• The positive and negative imprints of Shadows alternate as they march along the walls
of the gallery. Despite the apparent embrace of repetition, Warhol’s “machine method”
is handmade and pictorial, emphasizing its irreproducibility and problematizing
Warhol’s aesthetic of “plagiarism.”
• Each Shadow corresponds to a form that reveals its space with precision and selfawareness,
directing the spectator’s gaze to the light, the central subject of the series.
By focusing on the shadow to devise light—that is to say, sparks of color—Warhol
returns to the quintessential problem of art: perception.
• Contrary to his professed emptiness, Warhol’s working process and the “assembly line”
of his Factory heralded quite deliberate social and political transgressions.

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The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao presents Shadows (1977–78) by Andy Warhol, a monumental
artwork of 102 large format, silkscreened panels that reflect some of Warhol’s explorations with
abstraction through his signature palette of bright and cheerful hues, which characterized a large part
of his work. Curator Lucia Agirre is working on the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao's presentation of
Andy Warhol: Shadows, which is organized by Dia Art Foundation.

At 50 years old, Andy Warhol, the irreverent Pop Art icon, and chronicler of an era, embarked upon
the production of a monumental artwork titled Shadows with the assistance of his entourage at the
Factory. The work formalized earlier explorations with abstraction, seen the previous year in the
Oxidation, Rorschach, and Camouflage paintings. In contrast to the Oxidation or Piss paintings,
achieved through a process of staining in which a canvas coated in copper reacted to the acidity of
urine spilled or dripped on it, the Shadows panels are silkscreened canvases. To understand the
radical implications of Warhol’s Shadows, one must begin with the work’s form: the Shadows series
was conceived as one painting in multiple parts, the final number of canvases determined by the
dimensions of an exhibition space. In its first public presentation, only 83 canvases were shown. They
were installed edge to edge, a foot from the floor, in the order that Warhol’s assistants, Ronnie
Cutrone and Stephen Mueller, hung them.

The canvases, which were primed and coated with acrylic paint prior to the printing of the image,
show Warhol’s signature palette of bright hues with cheerful excess. While the color palette used for
the grounds of the Shadows includes more than a dozen different hues, certain colors that are
characteristic of his larger body of work—the translucent violet of Lavender Disaster, 1963, or the
aqua green of Turquoise Marilyn, 1964—are present. Unlike the surfaces of earlier paintings, in which
thin layers of rolled acrylic paint constituted the backgrounds onto which black pixelated images
were silkscreened, the backgrounds of the Shadows canvases were painted with a sponge mop,
whose streaks and trails add “gesture” to the picture plane. Seven or eight different screens were
used to create Shadows, as evidenced in the slight shifts in scales of dark areas as well as the arbitrary
presence of spots of light.

The “shadows” alternate between positive and negative as they march along the walls of the gallery.
Despite the apparent embrace of repetition, Warhol’s “machine method” is nothing but handmade.
A significant and intriguing fact about Shadows is the irreproducibility of its assumed reproduction, a
point that problematizes his aesthetic of “plagiarism” and positions Warhol’s project as one that is
primordially pictorial. This revelation, previously inferred by curator Donna De Salvo in the
catalogue for the Tate Gallery’s 2001 retrospective of Warhol’s work, is crucial to our absorbing this
monumental series 39 years after it was created. As De Salvo observed, “each of the visual strategies
operative in these paintings is the same as those used some 17 years before. As with the earlier
silkscreen paintings, although we at first believe each canvas to be the same—a belief emphasized
here by the repeated patterns of the shadow—they are not.” Far from replicas, each Shadow
corresponds to a form that reveals its space with precision and self-awareness, directing the
spectator’s gaze to light, the central subject of the series. By focusing on the shadow to devise light
as sparks of color, Warhol returns to the quintessential problem of art: perception. As he asserted,
“when I look at things, I always see the space they occupy. I always want the space to reappear, to
make a comeback, because it’s lost space when there’s something in it.”

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The Artist
Andy Warhol was known for admitting his “fondness for dull things,” which by the early 1960s
corresponded to his use of photographic reproductions of found imagery culled from newspapers,
magazines, and image archives. Focusing his attention on “ready-made” icons of popular culture,
Warhol compiled over the course of his career a pictorial repertoire that included consumer
products, portraits of celebrities, socialites, and criminals, and snapshots of car accidents, electric
chairs, and race riots, which were transferred onto canvas using commercial silkscreen techniques. It
has frequently been claimed that Warhol’s contradictory statements and fluctuating declarations of
intention, which permeated his career, were mere “acts” within a carefully tailored self-parody.
Perhaps to Warhol’s own astonishment, his deployment of superfluous and ordinary subjects would
become a powerful model of political subversion for a generation defined as much as by Hollywood
and popular music as by the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement. In hindsight, Warhol’s
prolific oeuvre, which materialized in a wide range of media including drawings, prints, silkscreened
canvases, Polaroid photographs, and black-and-white prints, as well as Super 8 and 16mm films,
remains to this day unrivaled for its copiousness. Contrary to his professed emptiness—he once said,
“if you want to know all about Andy Warhol, just look at the surface of my paintings and films and
me, and there I am. There’s nothing behind it”—Warhol’s working process and the “assembly line” of
his Factory heralded with unprecedented irreverence and irony quite deliberate social and political

Andy Warhol was born in 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and grew up in McKeesport,
Pennsylvania. From 1945 to 1949, he studied art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, receiving a
B.A. in pictorial design. In 1949, he moved to New York to pursue a career as a commercial illustrator
and began exhibiting drawings and paintings in the 1950s. In 1962, he exhibited his first hand-painted
Campbell Soup Can painting at Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles and his silkscreened paintings at Stable
Gallery in New York. Thereafter, his work was widely shown in the United States and abroad. Warhol
died on February 22, 1987.

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Didaktika In Focus: Andy Warhol

In Focus is the name of the Didaktikas that are created to complement every monographic
exhibition in Gallery 105 of the Museum. Andy Warhol: Shadows includes an educational area, and
the activities offered there are specifically created to support the exhibition and the work of the
gallery guides.

Educational Area
Located in the same gallery, the educational area offers visitors an audiovisual experience, through
color and light, which harmonizes with the key ideas in Warhol’s production, including abstraction
and the mechanical production of images. It produces an unfamiliar universe of the artist, in which
the lights and shadows of the works literally surround the visitor.

Educational Activities Andy Warhol: Shadows
The visitor can explore the hidden details of the assembly line and other curiosities of the exhibition
in these unique visits led by Museum professionals in the program Shared Reflections.

• Curatorial Vision: 02/03/2016. Lucía Agirre, Curator at the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.
• Key Concepts: 09/03/2016. Marta Arzak, Associate Director of Education and
Interpretation at the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.

Gallery Hosts
To obtain more information about the contents of the exhibitions, visitors can approach the Gallery
Hosts, a free service that the Museum offers daily from 11 am to 2 pm.

Cover Image:
Andy Warhol
Shadows, 1978–79
Dia Art Foundation
View of the installation: Dia:Beacon, Beacon, New York
© The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / VEGAP
Photo: Bill Jacobson

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